Can United States Limited Liability Companies be Owned by Foreign Members?
Yes. The United States allows citizens of foreign countries to own a US Limited Liability Company (LLC). A foreign owner can own an equity ownership interest of one hundred percent or a fractional interest.
Is it Advantageous for a Citizen of Foreign Nation to Own a US LLC?
Yes. Ownership of a US Limited Liability Company (LLC) allows a foreign citizen to participate in the largest single economy on earth.
For the purposes of this post, what is referred to as a US LLC is, in fact, a LLC created under the laws of one of the Fifty States or the District of Columbia. Some States allow the formation of a Professional Limited Liability Company (PLLC). A PLLC is a specific type of LLC.
Taxation of US LLCs
Business Patent Law, PLLC does not provide specific tax counsel for its clients. However, we can offer some general principles regarding foreign ownership of US LLCs:
- Most nations tax the income of their citizens, regardless of jurisdiction where the income was generated.
- Under US federal tax law, LLCs are considered “pass-through entities” for tax purposes. This means that profits and losses are passed through to the owners of the LLC.
- As a general rule, most LLCs are required to pay some type of taxes and/or fees in the State of the LLC’s organization and any other State in which the LLC does business.
- State law taxes and fees vary from state to state and are usually less than US federal taxes.
Does the US Participate in Tax Treaties with Other Nations?
- Before purchasing ownership in a US LLC, a potential foreign owner should seek legal and tax counsel in both the owner’s home nation and the United States.
- The United States has enacted tax treaties with different nations.
- Different tax treaties produce different tax consequences for the foreign owner of a US LLC.
- Among other things, the tax treaties can control what is taxed or is not taxed and payment of taxes in the United States and the foreign owner’s home nation.
Does a Foreign Owner of a US LLC need to register with the IRS?
It depends on the Tax Treaty between the foreign owner’s home Nation and the United States.
As a general rule, a foreign owner owning 25% or more of the US LLC will need to register with the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS). When the foreign owner is required to register with the IRS, the foreign owner must secure a Foreign Taxpayer Identification Number (FTIN). It can take several months for the IRS to issue the FTIN.
Under some tax treaties, an owner of less than a 25% equity interest in the US LLC may not be required to register with the US IRS.
Under some tax treaties, an owner of less than a 25% equity interest in the US LLC may not be taxed on the owner’s profits from the US LLC. However, the foreign owner will likely be taxed on the LLC’s profits in the foreign owner’s home Nation.
If the US LLC should file certain documents related to foreign ownership and does not file the documents with the IRS, the IRS will financially penalize the US LLC.
Business Patent Law, PLLC provides intellectual property and business counsel for businesses and companies.
If you have questions about equity ownership of a US LLC, please contact Business Patent Law, PLLC and we will discuss possibilities for your business.
If you would like to stay up-to-date with news that impacts your business and intellectual property, sign up for Business Patent Law’s Monthly Mailer™ newsletter.